Author Archives: Interstate Metal Inc

  1. What Is Brass Made Of?

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    Brass is a fundamental alloy that holds a pivotal role in metallurgy. Its remarkable composition and properties have solidified its place as one of the most commonly used alloys across a multitude of industries. Let’s take a closer look at what brass is made of, how its composition affects its properties, the manufacturing process, and its diverse applications.

    What Is Brass Made Of: How Elemental Ratios Affect Its Properties

    At its core, brass is composed of copper and zinc as its primary constituents. The proportions of these two elements are crucial in shaping the characteristics of brass, influencing everything from its color to its mechanical attributes.

    Copper-Rich Brass

    When brass has a higher proportion of copper, it features warm, reddish tones. This warm aesthetic makes copper-rich brass a preferred choice for decorative elements. In addition, copper contributes strength and durability to brass, making it sturdy enough to withstand external pressures and mechanical stresses.

    Zinc-Rich Brass

    When the proportion of zinc in brass compositions is higher, it displays a soft, golden luster. This elegant appearance makes zinc-rich brass popular for creating ornamental fixtures and architectural accents. Moreover, zinc enhances the malleability of brass, making it easier to shape and form during manufacturing. It also contributes to corrosion resistance, ensuring that zinc-rich brass maintains its visual appeal and structural integrity over time.

    Other Elements in Brass for Specialized Purposes

    While copper and zinc are the main components in brass, other trace elements are also used for specific purposes. These include:


    Tin-infused brass is renowned for its antimicrobial quality. It inhibits the growth of harmful microorganisms on surfaces, contributing to a safer and cleaner environment. Tin’s presence can also bolster the corrosion resistance of brass alloys.


    Lead softens brass, making it more conducive to machining processes. As a result, the alloy can be shaped and manipulated with greater ease, allowing manufacturers to create intricate components with fine details. Furthermore, this element contributes to a smoother surface finish during machining, reducing the risk of burrs and imperfections.


    Nickel-brass alloys exhibit superior resistance to corrosion, making them resilient even when exposed to moisture, saltwater, and chemicals. The addition of nickel also contributes to the overall strength and durability and improved mechanical properties of the alloy.

    The Brass Manufacturing Process

    Crafting brass involves a meticulous process that requires precision and expertise. Starting with raw material selection, high-quality copper and zinc are melted and mixed to achieve the desired composition. Refining techniques may be employed to purify the alloy and remove impurities, ensuring consistent quality.

    The resulting brass is then ready to be shaped through casting methods and undergoes heat treatment to enhance mechanical properties. Machining and finishing follow, producing components with precise dimensions and desired surface textures. Lastly, quality control measures ensure the final products meet specifications.

    Versatility in Applications

    Brass finds its versatile presence across diverse industries, showcasing its adaptability and reliability. Here are some of the sectors using brass:


    Brass’s durability and corrosion resistance make it indispensable in the construction sector. From architectural elements like doorknobs, hinges, and handrails to exterior cladding and interior accents, brass contributes both functional reliability and aesthetic appeal.

    Plumbing and Electrical Engineering

    In plumbing systems, brass fittings and valves have long been favored due to their resistance to corrosion and ability to handle high-pressure environments. Furthermore, brass’s malleability ensures secure connections, contributing to leak-free plumbing systems.

    Similarly, the electrical industry relies on brass components for conductivity and heat resistance. Connectors, switches, and sockets made from brass ensure reliable electrical connections.

    Musical Instruments

    The harmonious notes of musical instruments often owe their resonance to brass. Brass’s unique acoustic properties make it a staple in producing wind instruments like trumpets, trombones, and saxophones.

    Decorative Arts

    Brass’s aesthetic allure shines in the realm of decorative arts. From intricately designed sculptures to ornate jewelry, the alloy’s warm and lustrous appearance adds a touch of elegance and timeless beauty to various creations.

    Source High-Quality Brass From Interstate Metal

    If you’re looking for a reputable vendor of premium brass, check out Interstate Metal! As a trusted supplier of top-quality metals, we provide a comprehensive range of brass alloys suited to your specific needs. Don’t hesitate to contact us for inquiries or to request more information about our catalog! Let’s forge a path together, leveraging the exceptional qualities of brass to elevate your business and projects.

  2. How Do You Tell the Difference Between Brass and Bronze?

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    Brass and bronze are two metals often used interchangeably, but they are not the same. Although both are copper alloys, they have different properties and are used for various purposes. Therefore, knowing the difference between these metals is crucial, especially when choosing the right material for a specific project.

    This article will explore brass and bronze’s characteristics — composition, applications, and cost.


    Brass and bronze are both copper alloys that have been used for various purposes for centuries. Brass is a yellow-colored metal that has been in use since ancient times for decorative and functional objects like jewelry, statues, and musical instruments. On the other hand, bronze is a reddish-brown metal developed in the Bronze Age.

    The composition of brass and bronze is one of the most significant differences between the two metals. Brass is typically made up of copper and zinc, with the proportion of each metal varying depending on the desired properties of the alloy. Zinc is added to copper to make brass harder and more durable than pure copper while also giving it a bright yellow color similar to gold.

    Meanwhile, Bronze usually has a higher copper content than brass, making up a larger proportion of the alloy than zinc does. The inclusion of more copper gives bronze a reddish-brown color and makes it stronger and harder than brass, with better resistance to corrosion and wear. Bronze may also contain other metals, such as aluminum, silicon, or manganese.


    The applications of brass and bronze are often determined by their unique physical properties. Brass — with its bright yellow color — is commonly used for decorative items such as doorknobs, lighting fixtures, and hardware. In addition, its ability to be easily molded and shaped makes it an ideal material for creating intricate designs. It is also widely used to produce musical instruments, particularly trumpets, trombones, and saxophones.

    Bronze is used for more heavy-duty applications due to its strength and durability. Its strength, hardness, and wear resistance make it an ideal material for bearings, bushings, and gears. These applications require materials that can withstand high stress and heavy loads while providing low friction and wear resistance.

    This material is also commonly used for sculptures, statues, and monuments due to its beautiful reddish-brown color and ability to hold fine details. Its durability and resistance to corrosion also make it ideal for outdoor applications where it is exposed to the elements. In addition, bronze is used for historical and commemorative plaques and medals due to its association with high value and prestige.


    This cost difference between brass and bronze is mainly due to their composition. Copper is the main alloying metal in bronze, which is what makes it more expensive than brass.

    However, the cost of both metals can also depend on the market demand and availability. For example, if the price of copper — the base metal of both brass and bronze — increases, the cost of both alloys will also increase. As a result, their market price can be volatile and subject to fluctuation.

    Choose Interstate Metal for Your Brass and Bronze Needs

    At Interstate Metal, we have extensive capabilities for manufacturing and distributing products involving brass and bronze alloys! Our team is always ready to answer questions about our products and services. Whether you are looking for brass or bronze alloys for a specific application, we have the expertise to help you find the right solution.

    Please request a quote to know more about what we offer. You can also contact us; our team will be delighted to answer your inquiries!

  3. What Is an Alloy?

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    An alloy is a substance made up of two or more metals or a metal and a non-metal. It could consist of a single phase (solid solution), a combination of metallic phases (two or more solutions), or an intermetallic complex without a clear phase boundary.

    Metal alloys are renowned for their power, longevity, and resistance to corrosion. These are used by engineers, architects, and other professionals in the industrial sector to manufacture wires, pipes, bridges, and machines.

    Properties of Alloys

    Determining the precise properties of new alloys is challenging because elements do not simply join to create the sum of their parts. Instead, they form from chemical reactions governed by the part requirements and specifications and other factors.

    Nonetheless, each pure metal has distinct advantages, such as great strength and hardness, superior electrical conductivity, or resistance to heat and corrosion. Commercial metal alloys then make an effort to combine these beneficial characteristics to create materials more helpful or suitable for particular purposes than their component constituents.

    In addition to being corrosion-resistant, alloys are tougher than base metals. They are also malleable, magnetizable, and inert to ordinary chemicals.

    The Alloying Process

    Metals can be alloyed by combining them with one or more elements. The most popular and traditional alloying method requires melting the base metal. Then, the solute is dissolved into the molten liquid.

    Iron and carbon are two solutes and metals with extraordinarily high melting temperatures and cannot melt. Still, alloying can be carried out with one or more elements in a gaseous state, like in a blast furnace. It is achieved by mixing the components through solid-state diffusion when one or more constituents are in the solid state. It is similar to traditional methods of pattern welding (solid-solid), shear steel manufacture (solid-solid), or crucible steel production (solid-liquid).

    Examples of Alloys

    Brass and carbon steel are the two most widely used and recognized alloys. Brass is created by combining copper and zinc in varied ratios, depending on the mechanical and electrical qualities desired.

    Other examples of alloys include the following:


    The earliest alloy to be discovered is bronze — mostly made of copper (85-88%), tin (12.5%–13.5%), and trace amounts of other metals, including aluminum, manganese, zinc, or nickel. This concoction is meant to enhance copper’s qualities.

    Sculptures, musical instruments, medals, and many other industrial items are made of bronze.


    Steel is an iron alloy that may also include manganese and has a carbon content of 1% or less. It is durable, strong, and resistant to corrosion, making it ideal for several manufacturing applications.

    Steel is a common low-cost alloy used in building highways, trains, airports, bridges, skyscrapers, and other structures. In addition, it is used in major appliances and home goods.


    The only distinction between bronze and brass is that bronze is a copper and tin alloy. On the other hand, brass is an alloy containing copper, zinc, lead, phosphorus, aluminum, manganese, silicon, and other elements.

    Brass is used to create musical instruments, doorknobs, gears, locks, zippers, and other decorative objects. It is also suitable for a wide array of electrical and plumbing applications.


    Nickel, chromium, and iron alloys are known as nichrome; resistance wire is routinely fabricated from this alloy. It is strong, ductile, resist electron flow, has a high melting temperature, and is resistant to oxidation. The usage of nichrome in heating elements is very common because of all these attributes.

    Nichrome is employed in the production of heating elements and explosives, and fireworks.

    Industry Applications of Alloys

    Alloys are widely employed in various industries, including manufacturing, military, industrial, medical, and aerospace. Here are some of their most common applications:

    • Furniture, packaging, and containers for medical storage are commonly made from aluminum alloys. These are also used for specialized applications for high-altitude flights.
    • Copper alloys are used to substitute gold and platinum because of their cost-effectiveness. Moreover, these alloys’ electric and thermal performance is unmatched, and they have high corrosion resistance.
    • Nickel alloys are frequently used in chemical and petrochemical sectors and aircraft gas turbines.
    • Due to their great corrosion resistance, stainless steel alloys are frequently utilized in undersea sea cables.

    High-Quality Alloys From Interstate Metal

    Interstate Metal offers 10 years of collaborative experience in metal forging, saw cutting, and alloy products throughout North America! We specialize in various bars, tubing, sheet, and coil alloy products. Moreover, we work for and with the best professionals in the engineering, manufacturing, management, sales, and warehousing industries.

    Contact us to learn more about our services, products, and custom services!




  4. Guide to Copper Alloy 122: Properties and Applications

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    Copper tubes on white background

    The addition of phosphorus to copper alloy 122 makes it an excellent option for heavy-forming processes. In fact, this material is easier to braze and weld than 110 copper, even if they are almost identical mechanically. Also, copper alloy 122 has great resistance to corrosion caused by water, weather, and soil. This makes it an outstanding material for underground and plumbing applications. Copper alloy 122 is also used in various household and industrial applications. Read on to learn more.

    What Are the Properties of Copper Alloy 122?

    Copper alloy 122 is preferred in various sectors due to its valuable properties. We can break them down into two components as follows:

    Chemical Composition

    The chemical composition of copper alloy 122 contains two elements, copper (Cu) at a minimum of 99.9% and phosphorus (P), which can range from 0.015% to 0.040%. Note that the copper value also includes silver (Ag). The chemical composition of copper alloy 122 makes it a good candidate for diverse applications in several sectors.

    Mechanical Information

    The mechanical composition of copper alloy 122 can be broken down into various elements, which are highlighted below. Copper alloy 122 has a density of 0.323 lb./in., an ultimate tensile strength of 49,300 psi, and yield tensile strength of 45,000 psi. Also, it has a shear modulus of 6,380 ksi and a modulus of elasticity of about 17,400 ksi. The melting point of copper alloy 122 varies from 1,880° F to 1,980° F.

    Other Common Names for Copper Alloy 122

    While copper alloy 122 is the correct terminology used in most sectors, there are other names that people use to refer to the same product. Some of the common trade names of copper alloy 122 include:

    • UNS C12200
    • CDA 122
    • DHP Copper
    • DHP Phosphorized
    • High Residual P
    • Phosphorus-Deoxidized Copper
    • C122

    Applications of Copper Alloy 122

    Due to its high heat transfer qualities, its corrosion-resistance properties, and a smooth interior, it is used as tubing for drinking water since it doesn’t restrict flow. Industries that want to make high, medium, and low-pressure copper tubes use copper alloy 122.

    Generally, you’ll find copper alloy 122 in both households and industrial settings. This material is applied as shown below:


    • Plumbing tubes
    • Air conditioners
    • Oil burner tubes
    • Heat liners
    • Refrigerators
    • Gas lines


    • Evaporator tubes
    • Brewery tubes
    • Heat exchanger tubes
    • Distiller tubes
    • Gasoline
    • Oil lines
    • Water lines
    • Dairy tubes
    • Hydraulic lines
    • Steam lines
    • Condensers

    Copper Alloy 122 Products at Interstate Metal

    If you are in either of these sectors that rely heavily on copper alloy 122, you’ll want to get these products from a good company that produces high-quality materials of this product. Interstate Metal is a very reliable place where you can find copper alloy 122 products for use in general settings or any other environments that you deem necessary.

    Interstate Metal has an extensive array of copper 122 products. At the moment, you can select from the following products:

    Source Copper Alloy 122 Products from Interstate Metal

    The valuable qualities of copper alloy 122 make it one of the most sought-after materials in multiple industries, such as hydraulics, breweries, and water and oil sectors. Since copper alloy 122 is deoxidized with phosphorus, you can also use it in several heavy-forming procedures.

    If you are looking for copper alloy 122 products, Interstate Metal is your one-stop shop. We are the leading experts in manufacturing and distributing copper, aluminum, lead, and brass alloys. When you need our products, we are always happy to provide your preferred shapes or sizes of any alloys that suit your needs. Our mill can manufacture custom orders, and our warehouse is well stocked for immediate shipping or pickup. Also, our team is always ready to assist with any technical assistance you may need. Contact us for more details about copper alloy 122 or request a quote from Interstate Metal today.

  5. C110 Copper Alloy Guide: Properties and Applications

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    Copper 110, often referred to as C110, is a copper alloy that has been specifically formulated to have superior electrical and thermal conductivity. The ideal application for this metal would be in any type of equipment where electricity must flow from one point to another, such as wiring or electrical components. C110 Copper is also highly formable, meaning it can bend easily without breaking and does not require a lot of force when being formed into a desired shape. Another important aspect of 110 Copper is its corrosion resistance—it will not corrode over time like most other types of metals do when exposed to the elements. This makes C110 an excellent choice for many different indoor and outdoor components.

    Browse Our C110 Copper Bars

    What Are the Properties of C110 Copper?

    Circular and hexagonal copper bars in pileC110 is a form of copper with electrical and thermal conductivity characteristics.

    Chemical Composition

    The material of choice for the new C110 line is pure copper, which has a 99.9% copper content with the other 0.1% being oxygen.

    C110 is a highly conductive copper-based alloy with outstanding electrical and thermal conductivity properties, which is superior to other products available on the market. When heated, it is not brittle or embrittlement-prone like other copper alloys, such as copper alloy 122. C110 also contains the same amount of oxygen that occurs naturally in pure copper (Cu). This makes the alloy ductile, which is beneficial for electronic components that must be free from hazardous impurities and oxide films.

    C110 has excellent electrical conductivity, outstanding thermal conductivity, freedom from hydrogen embrittlement, and the potential for cold-working.

    Mechanical Information

    C110 Copper H02 (Half Hard) Temper

    • Ultimate Tensile Strength: 42,100 psi
    • Yield Strength: 36,300 psi
    • Rockwell Hardness: B40
    • Machinability: 20% 1/2″ or 3/4″ brass rod, also known as free-cutting brass rod (C360)
    • Melting Point: 1,950-1,980° F

    Other Common Names for C110 Copper Alloy

    Electrolytic Tough Pitch (ETP) copper is another name for copper alloys with a high carbon content, such as C110. They are also more technically referred to as UNS C11000, CDA 110 ETP, C110, and ISO Cu-ETP.

    Applications of C110 Copper Alloy

    C110 is commonly used in industrial applications where there is a need for ductility (such as in plumbing or roofing) or electrical conductivity (for example, electromagnets, bus bars, electrical motors, and other electrical equipment). It’s most often utilized in the home/residential/ architectural realm for its color (such as a kitchen backsplash or cutting board) or heat transfer qualities (e.g., pots and pans).

    In the building and construction industry, C110 Copper has many applications. These typically include: plumbing hardware, wiring, skylight frames, flashing, gutters, and more.

    Copper 110 can be welded with precaution, but generally the sort of inert gases required are not recommended for use with copper.

    C110 Copper Products at Interstate Metal

    Interstate Metal Inc. is a prominent pure copper alloy supplier with a large stock of C110 Copper bars in round, square, and rectangular forms. We have a wide array of ETP C11000, which is used in a variety of applications owing to its excellent electrical and thermal conductivity, corrosion resistance, and ease of fabrication.

    Source C110 Copper Alloy Products From Interstate Metal

    Interstate Metal Inc. is a leading source for brass, copper, aluminum, and lead-free brass alloys in the United States. We know that you want your business to look professional. We offer high-quality products and services at reasonable rates, allowing you to make a profit while saving money on supplies. With our low overhead costs and fair prices, we cater to all types of businesses, from large corporations to startups.

    Why Choose Interstate Metal, Inc.?

    Interstate Metal is a hardware manufacturer that serves North America. We employ only top-notch experts from the fields of engineering, production, administration, sales, and warehousing. The company president has 25 years of mill expertise and 30 years of copper expertise. Additionally, each employee has at least 10 years of experience with our firm.

    Lead-Free Fixtures

    Interstate Metal, Inc. is the first in line when it comes to adhering to California Assembly Bill (AB) 1953, which requires that certain plumbing components be “lead free.” For these purposes, “lead-free” refers to not more than 0.2% lead when applied as solder and flux, and not more than a weighted average of 0.25% when applied as wetted surfaces of pipes, fittings, and fixtures.

    Engineering Department

    All of our engineering department heads and the company president hold bachelor’s degrees in mechanical engineering. With our collective education and experience, we can create your designs from the ground up. For the utmost precision in design, engineering, and manufacturing, we work with the most up-to-date CAD/CAM/CAE software technology.

    Quality Assurance

    Our team of quality assurance professionals ensures that our products meet all necessary criteria. Our metrology lab, which is equipped with the most up-to-date measurement equipment, including CMM, Optical Comparator, Spectrophotometer, and Surface Profiler, among other things, works closely with us to ensure high standards.

    Contact Interstate Metal for Your Next Project

    Interstate Metal is a great choice when you need high-quality C110 copper products to begin your next project. Our helpful staff is eager to assist you with all of your requirements for copper as well as other high-quality metal products. To learn more about our C110 products, contact our team today.

  6. Guide to 360 Brass

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    360 brass is one of the most popular copper alloys available today. The 60-40 mixture of copper and zinc found in 360 brass creates an alloy with high corrosion resistance, impressive strength, and high durability. 360 brass’s 3% lead composition also helps to improve the machinability and workability of the alloy.

    Thanks to these desirable properties, 360 brass is used to produce a wide variety of components, including brass bars, bushings, connectors, couplings, pump shafts, and more. In this blog, we’ll examine the various properties and applications of 360 brass, as well as a selection of the high-quality 360 brass materials we offer at Interstate Metal.

    Brass for Sale

    What are the Properties of 360 Brass?

    Brass hexagonal bars

    360 brass’s unique chemical composition provides it with numerous properties that make it desirable for a number of different applications. To help explain what makes 360 brass such a useful alloy, we’ll explore its chemical composition, its mechanical information, and other key properties.

    360 Brass Chemical Composition

    The 360 brass alloy features the following chemical composition:

    • Copper: 61.5%
    • Zinc: 35.5%
    • Lead: 3.0%
    • Iron: 0.35%

    This chemical composition yields several desirable properties. To start, 360 brass is incredibly resistant to corrosion due to the high copper and zinc composition. 360 brass also has an ultimate tensile strength of up to 68,000 psi and a yield tensile strength of up to 45,000 psi, enabling the material to maintain its structural integrity even when used in high-stress applications. Despite its impressive strength, 360 brass remains quite malleable, featuring a machinability rating of 100. This makes it the most machinable of all copper alloys.

    Mechanical Information

    • Density: .307 lb/in3
    • Ultimate Tensile Strength: 49,000 – 68,000 psi
    • Yield Tensile Strength: 18,000 – 45,000 psi
    • Modulus of Elasticity: 14,100 ksi
    • Shear Modulus: 5,370 ksi
    • Shear Strength: 30,500 – 45,000 psi
    • Melting Point: 1,630°F – 1,650°F
    • Electrical Conductivity: 26% IACS
    • Rockwell Hardness: B78
    • Elongation at Break Percentage: 53%
    • Poisson’s Ratio: 0.31
    • Machinability Percentage: 100%

    Other Common Names for 360 Brass

    In addition to 360 brass, the alloy is also known by common trade names such as CDA 360, UNS 36000, C360, ISO CuZn36Pb3, and free-cutting brass.

    Applications of 360 Brass

    Thanks to its impressive strength, corrosion resistance, and machinability, 360 brass is a popular alloy for a broad range of industries and applications, including:

    • Plumbing fixtures
    • Screw machine parts
    • Nuts
    • Bolts
    • Pump shafts
    • Couplings
    • Bushings
    • Connecters
    • Fittings
    • Electrical components
    • Industrial hardware components
    • Valve stems
    • Circuit board relays

    360 Brass Products at Interstate Metal

    At Interstate Metal, we are proud to offer high-quality 360 brass bars to our customers across the country who rely on this alloy for their industrial applications. Our 360 brass products include round bars, hexagon bars, rectangle bars, and square bars that can be ordered in a variety of thicknesses and lengths. We also give our customers the option to select custom lengths when they place an order.

    360 brass is a truly impressive alloy, offering excellent physical properties that make it popular for machining an incredibly wide range of components for an equally broad spectrum of applications. You can count Interstate Metal to provide you with the best 360 brass bars on the market today at the most competitive prices. Since 1990, Interstate Metal has specialized in the manufacturing and distribution of brass, copper, aluminum, and lead-free brass alloy materials.

    Our commitment to quality and customer satisfaction is as solid as it was when our company was first founded over 30 years ago. To learn more about our 360 brass products, feel free to contact us or request a quote today.