Author Archives: Interstate Metal Inc

  1. ACR Copper Coil Tubing

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    Air conditioning and refrigeration (ACR) copper tubing is commonly used in heating, ventilation, and air conditioning (HVAC) systems. It is utilized for transporting refrigerants — such as R-410A and R-22 — throughout the system to facilitate the cooling or refrigeration process. This tubing technique is preferred for its ability to efficiently conduct heat, which is crucial for effective ACR operation.

    In this article, we will discuss the characteristics and applications of this copper coil tubing method. We will also look at the different types of ACR copper coils.

    Unique Characteristics of ACR Copper Coils

    The following characteristics make ACR copper coils the go-to materials for those seeking efficient and durable solutions for air conditioning and refrigeration systems:


    ACR copper coils are renowned for compatibility with refrigerants commonly used in air conditioning and refrigeration systems. This ensures that the coils can accommodate various system designs and operating conditions. It also offers reliability and performance across diverse applications in commercial and industrial settings.

    Corrosion Resistance

    A defining trait of ACR copper coils is their excellent corrosion resistance. They retain their integrity over time, even when exposed to harsh environmental conditions or various refrigerants. This is essential in ensuring the longevity and reliability of the components, where exposure to moisture, chemicals, and other corrosive elements is common.


    ACR copper coils exhibit excellent formability, allowing them to be easily bent, shaped, and installed to suit the specific requirements of diverse applications. This flexibility is invaluable in adapting the coils to intricate system designs and optimizing space utilization and system performance. Installers also benefit from the ease of working with these coils, which enables precise customization.

    Thermal Conductivity

    The high thermal conductivity of ACR copper coils allows for efficient heat transfer within the system. This facilitates rapid cooling or heating of the surrounding air or refrigerant. It also contributes to the overall energy efficiency of HVAC and refrigeration (HVACR) systems, ultimately reducing operational costs and environmental impact. Moreover, it ensures consistent temperature regulation throughout the system.

    Applications of ACR Copper Coil Tubing

    Aside from air conditioning systems and refrigeration units, here are the most common applications of this coil tubing technique:

    • Agricultural cooling systems: The coils preserve harvested crops and maintain optimal conditions in agricultural storage facilities.
    • Automotive air conditioning: ACR copper coils are incorporated into automotive HVAC systems to ensure reliable performance and comfort for passengers.
    • Data center cooling: The coils help dissipate heat generated by servers and networking equipment, ensuring efficient operation and preventing overheating-related downtime.
    • Food and beverage systems: ACR copper coils are used in commercial refrigerators, display cases, and dispensing systems to maintain optimal storage temperatures for perishable items.
    • Medical and laboratory equipment: The coils are used in cooling units for storing vaccines, pharmaceuticals, and biological samples to ensure their integrity and efficacy.
    • Renewable energy systems: The coils facilitate heat transfer between the ground and the indoor environment in geothermal heat pumps.

    Types of ACR Copper Coil Tubing

    The following types of ACR copper tubing offer distinct advantages and applications:

    Standard ACR Copper Tubing

    Standard ACR copper tubing is the most common type used in HVACR systems. It is available in various sizes and wall thicknesses to accommodate different configuration requirements. This tubing typically meets industry standards such as ASTM B280 and is suitable for general-purpose uses.

    Soft Annealed ACR Copper Tubing

    Soft annealed ACR copper tubing undergoes heat treatment to improve its malleability and ease of bending. This type is highly flexible and can be easily shaped by hand or with simple bending tools. It is preferred for applications requiring tight bends or intricate configurations.

    Hard-Drawn ACR Copper Tubing

    Hard-drawn ACR copper tubing is manufactured through a cold-drawing process, resulting in increased tensile strength and hardness compared to soft-annealed tubing. This tubing is more rigid and maintains its shape better when subjected to external forces or pressure.

    Insulated ACR Copper Tubing

    Insulated ACR copper tubing features a layer of insulation material wrapped around the copper tubing to prevent condensation and minimize heat transfer. This is commonly used for refrigerant lines running through unconditioned spaces or areas with fluctuating temperatures.

    Choose Interstate Metal for High-Quality Metals

    At Interstate Metal, Inc., we offer an array of metals engineered to deliver exceptional mechanical properties, guaranteeing reliability and durability across diverse applications! We also prioritize customer satisfaction by providing personalized services and expert guidance throughout selection and procurement. Moreover, our team is committed to providing comprehensive technical support and assistance.

    Contact us today or request more information about our products and services!

  2. What Is Bronze Made Of?

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    Bronze, a timeless alloy renowned for its distinct properties, has played an essential role in various industries throughout history. It is a copper alloy mixed with up to 12.5% tin, along with other metals like aluminum, manganese, nickel, or zinc. Sometimes, non-metals like phosphorus or metalloids like arsenic or silicon may also be added. These additions create a range of alloys with varied properties such as hardness, strength, ductility, or machinability.

    This alloy played a vital role in the Bronze Age, starting around 3500 BC in western Eurasia and India, and in China around 2000 BC. Although the Iron Age followed around 1300 BC, bronze continued to be extensively used until approximately 500 BC, despite its decline compared to modern times. Historically, artworks were commonly made from brasses a combination of copper and zinc and various compositions of bronze. Nowadays, it is still a crucial material for art, architecture, and engineering.

    In this blog, we’ll explore the composition of bronze, discuss the effects of varying ratios of its components, and highlight its historical and modern significance.

    What Is Bronze Made Of: Primary Composition

    Bronze is an alloy that combines copper and tin. The proportions of these constituents influence the alloy’s properties, such as color, strength, and corrosion resistance.

    Copper-Dominant Bronze

    A higher ratio of copper in the alloy results in what is known as “red” or “pink” bronze. This composition has enhanced strength, making it ideal for structural elements and machinery components that require durability and load-bearing capacity. The hue of copper-dominant bronze ranges from warm reddish tones to deeper shades, adding to its aesthetic appeal.

    Tin-Enriched Bronze

    On the other hand, a higher tin content creates a bronze with a paler hue, often called “white” or “pale” bronze. This composition amplifies the alloy’s corrosion resistance, making it an excellent choice for marine applications and environments prone to oxidation. Tin’s presence also increases the alloy’s fluidity during casting, enabling intricate designs and finer details in artistic creations.

    Additional Elements

    Beyond copper and tin, other elements can be added to bronze to enhance its properties. Here are some of them:


    Aluminum can make a stronger bronze with higher rust resistance. As a result, you get an alloy that is more resilient in high-moisture and corrosive environments. This makes it great for ship parts or structures exposed to outdoor elements.


    Phosphorus improves bronze’s fluidity during casting, allowing for more intricate designs and finishing. This is useful for crafting detailed sculptures and artworks.


    Like phosphorus, silicon contributes to increased fluidity, allowing bronze to flow smoothly when molded. It also reduces oxidation and rusting, making it suitable for components exposed to moisture.

    Applications of Bronze

    The use of bronze dates back to ancient civilizations, where it revolutionized craftsmanship and artistry. Early human societies, such as the Sumerians and Egyptians, harnessed bronze to create tools and weapons. In Greece and Rome, bronze sculptures symbolized might and artistry, while China’s dynasties used this alloy to produce ornate vessels.

    Bronze’s relevance persists in modern times. Sculptors and artists continue to employ this alloy for its ability to capture intricate details and textures. Architects also utilize it for ornamental and structural builds that exude elegance and durability.

    In the music industry, bronze alloys are used to create instruments like bells and cymbals, contributing to their rich, unique tones. Meanwhile, marine and engineering sectors rely on their resistance to corrosion in harsh environments.

    Get Quality Bronze From Interstate Metal

    Looking for a trusted supplier of exceptional bronze materials? Look no further than Interstate Metal! With over 3 decades of industry experience, we are your trusted experts in bronze, brass, copper, and aluminum products. Our products range from bars to press fittings, and we offer metal forging, saw cutting, and more services!

    Explore our comprehensive catalog to find the ideal bronze grade for your project’s requirements. You can also submit a query to learn more about our products or inquire about customized projects. Our team of experts is here to help you make the most informed decisions for your ventures.

  3. What To Look For in a Metal Forging Manufacturer

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    Click to ExpandWhat To Look For in a Metal Forging Manufacturer

    Metal forging is a fundamental manufacturing process that involves shaping and forming metal objects by applying compressive force and heat. This technique has been used for centuries to create durable and reliable metal components for various industries. Working with a reliable metal forging company will guarantee consistent quality, expertise, and timely delivery of critical components.

    In this blog post, we’ll guide you through the key considerations when selecting a metal forging partner.

    1. Industry Expertise and Certifications

    When evaluating a metal forging manufacturer, assess their credentials and experience. Look for manufacturers with a proven track record in your specific industry. An experienced manufacturer will understand your industry’s unique requirements and challenges, ensuring your projects’ success. They will also have a deep knowledge of various materials and their uses across different applications.

    Additionally, pay attention to a metal forging company’s accolades. Certifications such as ISO 9001, AS9100, or NADCAP indicate a commitment to quality and adherence to industry standards.

    2. Manufacturing Capabilities

    Different projects may require various materials like stainless steel or brass. Ensure that your chosen manufacturer has the expertise and equipment to work with the metals your project demands. For instance, if you are in the aerospace industry, you might require components that can withstand extreme temperatures and stress. In this case, a manufacturer with expertise in forging heat-resistant alloys like Inconel or titanium will be invaluable.

    Evaluate the company’s experience with different forging methods including open-die forging, closed-die forging, or ring rolling; each method has its advantages and limitations. Moreover, assess their ability to handle components of varying sizes and complexities, as this will determine their suitability for your specific needs. Some manufacturers specialize in producing large and complex parts, while others excel in small precision components.

    3. Quality Control Processes

    Quality control is paramount in metal forging. Ask about a manufacturer’s quality control processes, including material traceability, inspection protocols, and adherence to industry standards. Reliable manufacturers will have robust quality assurance measures in place to guarantee the integrity of the forged components they produce.

    4. Engineering and Design Support

    Ensure that the manufacturer can assist in optimizing your designs for the forging process. Experienced manufacturers have in-house engineering teams that can work closely with your own staff to refine your product schematics. They can provide material selection insights, design modifications to improve manufacturability, and cost-saving suggestions. Custom solutions and value-added services can be invaluable in achieving cost-effective and efficient production.

    5. Production Capacity and Lead Times

    Timely delivery is crucial to keep your projects on schedule. A manufacturer with efficient production processes can make a significant difference in meeting your deadlines. This prevents revenue loss from delayed projects and maximizes your profits.

    In addition, assess the provider’s ability to scale production as your business grows. Can they meet your production volume requirements? A partner with flexible production capacity can adapt to your changing needs without compromising quality or delivery times.

    6. Pricing and Cost-Effectiveness

    While cost is a crucial factor, it should not be the sole determining factor when choosing a metal forging manufacturer. Look for competitive pricing, but also consider the value the manufacturer brings to your projects. A provider that delivers consistent, high-quality, defect-free components may be more cost-effective in the long run, even if their initial price is slightly higher.

    Elevating Your Metal Forging Projects With Interstate Metal

    If you’re seeking a trusted metal forging partner, look no further than Interstate Metal! We specialize in brass forging using closed forging techniques, but we also do a diverse range of copper alloy forging. Plus, we provide a range of metal options in different sizes and shapes tailored to your specifications. Our production teams have a minimum of 10 years’ experience within our company, ensuring the highest level of accuracy in design, engineering, and manufacturing processes.

    Contact us today or request more information about our products and services to start your metal forging project.

  4. When To Choose Forging Brass

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    Click to ExpandWhen To Choose Forging Brass

    Forging brass is an alloy primarily made up of copper and zinc, with small amounts of additional elements. The exact composition can vary, but it generally consists of approximately 60-70% copper and 30-40% zinc, with trace amounts of lead and tin. This composition gives forging brass its desired mechanical properties and facilitates its use in various applications.

    In this article, we will discuss the unique mechanical properties of brass and its best applications in various settings.

    Mechanical Properties of Forging Brass

    Listed below are the key characteristics of brass that make it a unique and valuable material in various industrial applications:

    • Tensile strength: Forging brass exhibits excellent tensile strength, providing robustness and structural integrity to components. Its ability to withstand axial loads without deformation makes it suitable for applications requiring strength.
    • Yield strength: With a notable yield strength, this brass alloy exhibits resistance to deformation under stress. This ensures reliability in applications where the preservation of shape and form is of utmost importance.
    • Elongation: An alloy’s elongation properties indicate its capacity to undergo deformation before rupture. The good elongation of forging brass allows for intricate shapes during the forging process without compromising its structural integrity.
    • Hardness: This brass alloy has a balanced hardness, striking a compromise between malleable and forging. It also provides sufficient resistance to wear and abrasion, contributing to its longevity in service.
    • Machinability: One of the standout features of brass is its excellent machinability. The presence of lead enhances this property, facilitating the production of precise and intricate components easily.
    • Corrosion resistance: A crucial property for longevity in various environments, forging brass exhibits excellent corrosion resistance. This makes it suitable for applications exposed to harsh weather conditions, moisture, or chemicals.

    Best Applications of Forging Brass

    The following are the components that often benefit from the unique properties of forging brass:

    Valve Components

    The alloy’s excellent forging capabilities ensure the precision crafting of valve components, ensuring complex designs and shapes. Moreover, its corrosion resistance is crucial for maintaining the integrity of valves in environments where exposure to moisture and chemicals is prevalent. This makes it a reliable choice for applications requiring durable and high-performing valve components.

    Fittings and Connectors

    The machinability of forging brass makes it a go-to material for producing fittings and connectors. Its ability to resist deformation under stress also ensures the reliability of these components. Fittings and connectors made from this brass alloy find applications in sectors like plumbing, HVAC, and machinery assemblies.


    Nuts, bolts, and screws are often made from forging brass due to its balanced mechanical properties. In addition, the alloy’s impressive tensile strength and resistance to corrosion contribute to the longevity and reliability of fasteners. Industries ranging from construction to aerospace leverage these properties to ensure that their components maintain structural integrity, even in challenging conditions.

    Electrical Connectors

    The electrical industry benefits from brass in the production of connectors. The alloy’s conductivity, corrosion resistance, and formability make it an ideal material for crafting precise electrical connectors for electronic devices, power distribution systems, and more.

    Plumbing Fixtures

    In plumbing, forging brass, specifically lead-free brass, is a trusted material for fixtures like faucets and couplings. Its corrosion-resistant nature ensures the longevity of parts exposed to water and chemicals. Additionally, its malleability facilitates ease of installation. This aspect is valuable in plumbing applications where quick and efficient installation is essential to reduce downtime and labor costs.

    Choose Interstate Metal for High-Quality Metal Alloys

    At Interstate Metal, we take pride in delivering metal alloys with exceptional mechanical properties, ensuring reliability and durability in diverse applications! Our catalog features brass alloys, each crafted to provide optimum performance in various settings. These products are designed to meet the highest standards, whether for precision machining or forging applications.

    Contact us today or request more information about our products and services!

  5. What Is Brass Made Of?

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    Click to ExpandWhat Is Brass Made Of

    Brass is a fundamental alloy that holds a pivotal role in metallurgy. Its remarkable composition and properties have solidified its place as one of the most commonly used alloys across a multitude of industries. Let’s take a closer look at what brass is made of, how its composition affects its properties, the manufacturing process, and its diverse applications.

    What Is Brass Made Of: How Elemental Ratios Affect Its Properties

    At its core, brass is composed of copper and zinc as its primary constituents. The proportions of these two elements are crucial in shaping the characteristics of brass, influencing everything from its color to its mechanical attributes.

    Copper-Rich Brass

    When brass has a higher proportion of copper, it features warm, reddish tones. This warm aesthetic makes copper-rich brass a preferred choice for decorative elements. In addition, copper contributes strength and durability to brass, making it sturdy enough to withstand external pressures and mechanical stresses.

    Zinc-Rich Brass

    When the proportion of zinc in brass compositions is higher, it displays a soft, golden luster. This elegant appearance makes zinc-rich brass popular for creating ornamental fixtures and architectural accents. Moreover, zinc enhances the malleability of brass, making it easier to shape and form during manufacturing. It also contributes to corrosion resistance, ensuring that zinc-rich brass maintains its visual appeal and structural integrity over time.

    Other Elements in Brass for Specialized Purposes

    While copper and zinc are the main components in brass, other trace elements are also used for specific purposes. These include:


    Tin-infused brass is renowned for its antimicrobial quality. It inhibits the growth of harmful microorganisms on surfaces, contributing to a safer and cleaner environment. Tin’s presence can also bolster the corrosion resistance of brass alloys.


    Lead softens brass, making it more conducive to machining processes. As a result, the alloy can be shaped and manipulated with greater ease, allowing manufacturers to create intricate components with fine details. Furthermore, this element contributes to a smoother surface finish during machining, reducing the risk of burrs and imperfections.


    Nickel-brass alloys exhibit superior resistance to corrosion, making them resilient even when exposed to moisture, saltwater, and chemicals. The addition of nickel also contributes to the overall strength and durability and improved mechanical properties of the alloy.

    The Brass Manufacturing Process

    Crafting brass involves a meticulous process that requires precision and expertise. Starting with raw material selection, high-quality copper and zinc are melted and mixed to achieve the desired composition. Refining techniques may be employed to purify the alloy and remove impurities, ensuring consistent quality.

    The resulting brass is then ready to be shaped through casting methods and undergoes heat treatment to enhance mechanical properties. Machining and finishing follow, producing components with precise dimensions and desired surface textures. Lastly, quality control measures ensure the final products meet specifications.

    Versatility in Applications

    Brass finds its versatile presence across diverse industries, showcasing its adaptability and reliability. Here are some of the sectors using brass:


    Brass’s durability and corrosion resistance make it indispensable in the construction sector. From architectural elements like doorknobs, hinges, and handrails to exterior cladding and interior accents, brass contributes both functional reliability and aesthetic appeal.

    Plumbing and Electrical Engineering

    In plumbing systems, brass fittings and valves have long been favored due to their resistance to corrosion and ability to handle high-pressure environments. Furthermore, brass’s malleability ensures secure connections, contributing to leak-free plumbing systems.

    Similarly, the electrical industry relies on brass components for conductivity and heat resistance. Connectors, switches, and sockets made from brass ensure reliable electrical connections.

    Musical Instruments

    The harmonious notes of musical instruments often owe their resonance to brass. Brass’s unique acoustic properties make it a staple in producing wind instruments like trumpets, trombones, and saxophones.

    Decorative Arts

    Brass’s aesthetic allure shines in the realm of decorative arts. From intricately designed sculptures to ornate jewelry, the alloy’s warm and lustrous appearance adds a touch of elegance and timeless beauty to various creations.

    Source High-Quality Brass From Interstate Metal

    If you’re looking for a reputable vendor of premium brass, check out Interstate Metal! As a trusted supplier of top-quality metals, we provide a comprehensive range of brass alloys suited to your specific needs. Don’t hesitate to contact us for inquiries or to request more information about our catalog! Let’s forge a path together, leveraging the exceptional qualities of brass to elevate your business and projects.

  6. How Do You Tell the Difference Between Brass and Bronze?

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    Brass and bronze are two metals often used interchangeably, but they are not the same. Although both are copper alloys, they have different properties and are used for various purposes. Therefore, knowing the difference between these metals is crucial, especially when choosing the right material for a specific project.

    This article will explore brass and bronze’s characteristics — composition, applications, and cost.


    Brass and bronze are both copper alloys that have been used for various purposes for centuries. Brass is a yellow-colored metal that has been in use since ancient times for decorative and functional objects like jewelry, statues, and musical instruments. On the other hand, bronze is a reddish-brown metal developed in the Bronze Age.

    The composition of brass and bronze is one of the most significant differences between the two metals. Brass is typically made up of copper and zinc, with the proportion of each metal varying depending on the desired properties of the alloy. Zinc is added to copper to make brass harder and more durable than pure copper while also giving it a bright yellow color similar to gold.

    Meanwhile, Bronze usually has a higher copper content than brass, making up a larger proportion of the alloy than zinc does. The inclusion of more copper gives bronze a reddish-brown color and makes it stronger and harder than brass, with better resistance to corrosion and wear. Bronze may also contain other metals, such as aluminum, silicon, or manganese.


    The applications of brass and bronze are often determined by their unique physical properties. Brass — with its bright yellow color — is commonly used for decorative items such as doorknobs, lighting fixtures, and hardware. In addition, its ability to be easily molded and shaped makes it an ideal material for creating intricate designs. It is also widely used to produce musical instruments, particularly trumpets, trombones, and saxophones.

    Bronze is used for more heavy-duty applications due to its strength and durability. Its strength, hardness, and wear resistance make it an ideal material for bearings, bushings, and gears. These applications require materials that can withstand high stress and heavy loads while providing low friction and wear resistance.

    This material is also commonly used for sculptures, statues, and monuments due to its beautiful reddish-brown color and ability to hold fine details. Its durability and resistance to corrosion also make it ideal for outdoor applications where it is exposed to the elements. In addition, bronze is used for historical and commemorative plaques and medals due to its association with high value and prestige.


    This cost difference between brass and bronze is mainly due to their composition. Copper is the main alloying metal in bronze, which is what makes it more expensive than brass.

    However, the cost of both metals can also depend on the market demand and availability. For example, if the price of copper — the base metal of both brass and bronze — increases, the cost of both alloys will also increase. As a result, their market price can be volatile and subject to fluctuation.

    Choose Interstate Metal for Your Brass and Bronze Needs

    At Interstate Metal, we have extensive capabilities for manufacturing and distributing products involving brass and bronze alloys! Our team is always ready to answer questions about our products and services. Whether you are looking for brass or bronze alloys for a specific application, we have the expertise to help you find the right solution.

    Please request a quote to know more about what we offer. You can also contact us; our team will be delighted to answer your inquiries!

  7. What Is an Alloy?

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    Click to ExpandWhat-Is-an-Alloy

    An alloy is a substance made up of two or more metals or a metal and a non-metal. It could consist of a single phase (solid solution), a combination of metallic phases (two or more solutions), or an intermetallic complex without a clear phase boundary.

    Metal alloys are renowned for their power, longevity, and resistance to corrosion. These are used by engineers, architects, and other professionals in the industrial sector to manufacture wires, pipes, bridges, and machines.

    Properties of Alloys

    Determining the precise properties of new alloys is challenging because elements do not simply join to create the sum of their parts. Instead, they form from chemical reactions governed by the part requirements and specifications and other factors.

    Nonetheless, each pure metal has distinct advantages, such as great strength and hardness, superior electrical conductivity, or resistance to heat and corrosion. Commercial metal alloys then make an effort to combine these beneficial characteristics to create materials more helpful or suitable for particular purposes than their component constituents.

    In addition to being corrosion-resistant, alloys are tougher than base metals. They are also malleable, magnetizable, and inert to ordinary chemicals.

    The Alloying Process

    Metals can be alloyed by combining them with one or more elements. The most popular and traditional alloying method requires melting the base metal. Then, the solute is dissolved into the molten liquid.

    Iron and carbon are two solutes and metals with extraordinarily high melting temperatures and cannot melt. Still, alloying can be carried out with one or more elements in a gaseous state, like in a blast furnace. It is achieved by mixing the components through solid-state diffusion when one or more constituents are in the solid state. It is similar to traditional methods of pattern welding (solid-solid), shear steel manufacture (solid-solid), or crucible steel production (solid-liquid).

    Examples of Alloys

    Brass and carbon steel are the two most widely used and recognized alloys. Brass is created by combining copper and zinc in varied ratios, depending on the mechanical and electrical qualities desired.

    Other examples of alloys include the following:


    The earliest alloy to be discovered is bronze — mostly made of copper (85-88%), tin (12.5%–13.5%), and trace amounts of other metals, including aluminum, manganese, zinc, or nickel. This concoction is meant to enhance copper’s qualities.

    Sculptures, musical instruments, medals, and many other industrial items are made of bronze.


    Steel is an iron alloy that may also include manganese and has a carbon content of 1% or less. It is durable, strong, and resistant to corrosion, making it ideal for several manufacturing applications.

    Steel is a common low-cost alloy used in building highways, trains, airports, bridges, skyscrapers, and other structures. In addition, it is used in major appliances and home goods.


    The only distinction between bronze and brass is that bronze is a copper and tin alloy. On the other hand, brass is an alloy containing copper, zinc, lead, phosphorus, aluminum, manganese, silicon, and other elements.

    Brass is used to create musical instruments, doorknobs, gears, locks, zippers, and other decorative objects. It is also suitable for a wide array of electrical and plumbing applications.


    Nickel, chromium, and iron alloys are known as nichrome; resistance wire is routinely fabricated from this alloy. It is strong, ductile, resist electron flow, has a high melting temperature, and is resistant to oxidation. The usage of nichrome in heating elements is very common because of all these attributes.

    Nichrome is employed in the production of heating elements and explosives, and fireworks.

    Industry Applications of Alloys

    Alloys are widely employed in various industries, including manufacturing, military, industrial, medical, and aerospace. Here are some of their most common applications:

    • Furniture, packaging, and containers for medical storage are commonly made from aluminum alloys. These are also used for specialized applications for high-altitude flights.
    • Copper alloys are used to substitute gold and platinum because of their cost-effectiveness. Moreover, these alloys’ electric and thermal performance is unmatched, and they have high corrosion resistance.
    • Nickel alloys are frequently used in chemical and petrochemical sectors and aircraft gas turbines.
    • Due to their great corrosion resistance, stainless steel alloys are frequently utilized in undersea sea cables.

    High-Quality Alloys From Interstate Metal

    Interstate Metal offers 10 years of collaborative experience in metal forging, saw cutting, and alloy products throughout North America! We specialize in various bars, tubing, sheet, and coil alloy products. Moreover, we work for and with the best professionals in the engineering, manufacturing, management, sales, and warehousing industries.

    Contact us to learn more about our services, products, and custom services!




  8. Guide to Copper Alloy 122: Properties and Applications

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    Copper tubes on white background

    The addition of phosphorus to copper alloy 122 makes it an excellent option for heavy-forming processes. In fact, this material is easier to braze and weld than 110 copper, even if they are almost identical mechanically. Also, copper alloy 122 has great resistance to corrosion caused by water, weather, and soil. This makes it an outstanding material for underground and plumbing applications. Copper alloy 122 is also used in various household and industrial applications. Read on to learn more.

    What Are the Properties of Copper Alloy 122?

    Copper alloy 122 is preferred in various sectors due to its valuable properties. We can break them down into two components as follows:

    Chemical Composition

    The chemical composition of copper alloy 122 contains two elements, copper (Cu) at a minimum of 99.9% and phosphorus (P), which can range from 0.015% to 0.040%. Note that the copper value also includes silver (Ag). The chemical composition of copper alloy 122 makes it a good candidate for diverse applications in several sectors.

    Mechanical Information

    The mechanical composition of copper alloy 122 can be broken down into various elements, which are highlighted below. Copper alloy 122 has a density of 0.323 lb./in., an ultimate tensile strength of 49,300 psi, and yield tensile strength of 45,000 psi. Also, it has a shear modulus of 6,380 ksi and a modulus of elasticity of about 17,400 ksi. The melting point of copper alloy 122 varies from 1,880° F to 1,980° F.

    Other Common Names for Copper Alloy 122

    While copper alloy 122 is the correct terminology used in most sectors, there are other names that people use to refer to the same product. Some of the common trade names of copper alloy 122 include:

    • UNS C12200
    • CDA 122
    • DHP Copper
    • DHP Phosphorized
    • High Residual P
    • Phosphorus-Deoxidized Copper
    • C122

    Applications of Copper Alloy 122

    Due to its high heat transfer qualities, its corrosion-resistance properties, and a smooth interior, it is used as tubing for drinking water since it doesn’t restrict flow. Industries that want to make high, medium, and low-pressure copper tubes use copper alloy 122.

    Generally, you’ll find copper alloy 122 in both households and industrial settings. This material is applied as shown below:


    • Plumbing tubes
    • Air conditioners
    • Oil burner tubes
    • Heat liners
    • Refrigerators
    • Gas lines


    • Evaporator tubes
    • Brewery tubes
    • Heat exchanger tubes
    • Distiller tubes
    • Gasoline
    • Oil lines
    • Water lines
    • Dairy tubes
    • Hydraulic lines
    • Steam lines
    • Condensers

    Copper Alloy 122 Products at Interstate Metal

    If you are in either of these sectors that rely heavily on copper alloy 122, you’ll want to get these products from a good company that produces high-quality materials of this product. Interstate Metal is a very reliable place where you can find copper alloy 122 products for use in general settings or any other environments that you deem necessary.

    Interstate Metal has an extensive array of copper 122 products. At the moment, you can select from the following products:

    Source Copper Alloy 122 Products from Interstate Metal

    The valuable qualities of copper alloy 122 make it one of the most sought-after materials in multiple industries, such as hydraulics, breweries, and water and oil sectors. Since copper alloy 122 is deoxidized with phosphorus, you can also use it in several heavy-forming procedures.

    If you are looking for copper alloy 122 products, Interstate Metal is your one-stop shop. We are the leading experts in manufacturing and distributing copper, aluminum, lead, and brass alloys. When you need our products, we are always happy to provide your preferred shapes or sizes of any alloys that suit your needs. Our mill can manufacture custom orders, and our warehouse is well stocked for immediate shipping or pickup. Also, our team is always ready to assist with any technical assistance you may need. Contact us for more details about copper alloy 122 or request a quote from Interstate Metal today.

  9. C110 Copper Alloy Guide: Properties and Applications

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    Copper 110, often referred to as C110, is a copper alloy that has been specifically formulated to have superior electrical and thermal conductivity. The ideal application for this metal would be in any type of equipment where electricity must flow from one point to another, such as wiring or electrical components. C110 Copper is also highly formable, meaning it can bend easily without breaking and does not require a lot of force when being formed into a desired shape. Another important aspect of 110 Copper is its corrosion resistance—it will not corrode over time like most other types of metals do when exposed to the elements. This makes C110 an excellent choice for many different indoor and outdoor components.

    Browse Our C110 Copper Bars

    What Are the Properties of C110 Copper?

    Circular and hexagonal copper bars in pileC110 is a form of copper with electrical and thermal conductivity characteristics.

    Chemical Composition

    The material of choice for the new C110 line is pure copper, which has a 99.9% copper content with the other 0.1% being oxygen.

    C110 is a highly conductive copper-based alloy with outstanding electrical and thermal conductivity properties, which is superior to other products available on the market. When heated, it is not brittle or embrittlement-prone like other copper alloys, such as copper alloy 122. C110 also contains the same amount of oxygen that occurs naturally in pure copper (Cu). This makes the alloy ductile, which is beneficial for electronic components that must be free from hazardous impurities and oxide films.

    C110 has excellent electrical conductivity, outstanding thermal conductivity, freedom from hydrogen embrittlement, and the potential for cold-working.

    Mechanical Information

    C110 Copper H02 (Half Hard) Temper

    • Ultimate Tensile Strength: 42,100 psi
    • Yield Strength: 36,300 psi
    • Rockwell Hardness: B40
    • Machinability: 20% 1/2″ or 3/4″ brass rod, also known as free-cutting brass rod (C360)
    • Melting Point: 1,950-1,980° F

    Other Common Names for C110 Copper Alloy

    Electrolytic Tough Pitch (ETP) copper is another name for copper alloys with a high carbon content, such as C110. They are also more technically referred to as UNS C11000, CDA 110 ETP, C110, and ISO Cu-ETP.

    Applications of C110 Copper Alloy

    C110 is commonly used in industrial applications where there is a need for ductility (such as in plumbing or roofing) or electrical conductivity (for example, electromagnets, bus bars, electrical motors, and other electrical equipment). It’s most often utilized in the home/residential/ architectural realm for its color (such as a kitchen backsplash or cutting board) or heat transfer qualities (e.g., pots and pans).

    In the building and construction industry, C110 Copper has many applications. These typically include: plumbing hardware, wiring, skylight frames, flashing, gutters, and more.

    Copper 110 can be welded with precaution, but generally the sort of inert gases required are not recommended for use with copper.

    C110 Copper Products at Interstate Metal

    Interstate Metal Inc. is a prominent pure copper alloy supplier with a large stock of C110 Copper bars in round, square, and rectangular forms. We have a wide array of ETP C11000, which is used in a variety of applications owing to its excellent electrical and thermal conductivity, corrosion resistance, and ease of fabrication.

    Source C110 Copper Alloy Products From Interstate Metal

    Interstate Metal Inc. is a leading source for brass, copper, aluminum, and lead-free brass alloys in the United States. We know that you want your business to look professional. We offer high-quality products and services at reasonable rates, allowing you to make a profit while saving money on supplies. With our low overhead costs and fair prices, we cater to all types of businesses, from large corporations to startups.

    Why Choose Interstate Metal, Inc.?

    Interstate Metal is a hardware manufacturer that serves North America. We employ only top-notch experts from the fields of engineering, production, administration, sales, and warehousing. The company president has 25 years of mill expertise and 30 years of copper expertise. Additionally, each employee has at least 10 years of experience with our firm.

    Lead-Free Fixtures

    Interstate Metal, Inc. is the first in line when it comes to adhering to California Assembly Bill (AB) 1953, which requires that certain plumbing components be “lead free.” For these purposes, “lead-free” refers to not more than 0.2% lead when applied as solder and flux, and not more than a weighted average of 0.25% when applied as wetted surfaces of pipes, fittings, and fixtures.

    Engineering Department

    All of our engineering department heads and the company president hold bachelor’s degrees in mechanical engineering. With our collective education and experience, we can create your designs from the ground up. For the utmost precision in design, engineering, and manufacturing, we work with the most up-to-date CAD/CAM/CAE software technology.

    Quality Assurance

    Our team of quality assurance professionals ensures that our products meet all necessary criteria. Our metrology lab, which is equipped with the most up-to-date measurement equipment, including CMM, Optical Comparator, Spectrophotometer, and Surface Profiler, among other things, works closely with us to ensure high standards.

    Contact Interstate Metal for Your Next Project

    Interstate Metal is a great choice when you need high-quality C110 copper products to begin your next project. Our helpful staff is eager to assist you with all of your requirements for copper as well as other high-quality metal products. To learn more about our C110 products, contact our team today.

  10. Guide to 360 Brass

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    360 brass is one of the most popular copper alloys available today. The 60-40 mixture of copper and zinc found in 360 brass creates an alloy with high corrosion resistance, impressive strength, and high durability. 360 brass’s 3% lead composition also helps to improve the machinability and workability of the alloy.

    Thanks to these desirable properties, 360 brass is used to produce a wide variety of components, including brass bars, bushings, connectors, couplings, pump shafts, and more. In this blog, we’ll examine the various properties and applications of 360 brass, as well as a selection of the high-quality 360 brass materials we offer at Interstate Metal.

    Brass for Sale

    What are the Properties of 360 Brass?

    Brass hexagonal bars

    360 brass’s unique chemical composition provides it with numerous properties that make it desirable for a number of different applications. To help explain what makes 360 brass such a useful alloy, we’ll explore its chemical composition, its mechanical information, and other key properties.

    360 Brass Chemical Composition

    The 360 brass alloy features the following chemical composition:

    • Copper: 61.5%
    • Zinc: 35.5%
    • Lead: 3.0%
    • Iron: 0.35%

    This chemical composition yields several desirable properties. To start, 360 brass is incredibly resistant to corrosion due to the high copper and zinc composition. 360 brass also has an ultimate tensile strength of up to 68,000 psi and a yield tensile strength of up to 45,000 psi, enabling the material to maintain its structural integrity even when used in high-stress applications. Despite its impressive strength, 360 brass remains quite malleable, featuring a machinability rating of 100. This makes it the most machinable of all copper alloys.

    Mechanical Information

    • Density: .307 lb/in3
    • Ultimate Tensile Strength: 49,000 – 68,000 psi
    • Yield Tensile Strength: 18,000 – 45,000 psi
    • Modulus of Elasticity: 14,100 ksi
    • Shear Modulus: 5,370 ksi
    • Shear Strength: 30,500 – 45,000 psi
    • Melting Point: 1,630°F – 1,650°F
    • Electrical Conductivity: 26% IACS
    • Rockwell Hardness: B78
    • Elongation at Break Percentage: 53%
    • Poisson’s Ratio: 0.31
    • Machinability Percentage: 100%

    Other Common Names for 360 Brass

    In addition to 360 brass, the alloy is also known by common trade names such as CDA 360, UNS 36000, C360, ISO CuZn36Pb3, and free-cutting brass.

    Applications of 360 Brass

    Thanks to its impressive strength, corrosion resistance, and machinability, 360 brass is a popular alloy for a broad range of industries and applications, including:

    • Plumbing fixtures
    • Screw machine parts
    • Nuts
    • Bolts
    • Pump shafts
    • Couplings
    • Bushings
    • Connecters
    • Fittings
    • Electrical components
    • Industrial hardware components
    • Valve stems
    • Circuit board relays

    360 Brass Products at Interstate Metal

    At Interstate Metal, we are proud to offer high-quality 360 brass bars to our customers across the country who rely on this alloy for their industrial applications. Our 360 brass products include round bars, hexagon bars, rectangle bars, and square bars that can be ordered in a variety of thicknesses and lengths. We also give our customers the option to select custom lengths when they place an order.

    360 brass is a truly impressive alloy, offering excellent physical properties that make it popular for machining an incredibly wide range of components for an equally broad spectrum of applications. You can count Interstate Metal to provide you with the best 360 brass bars on the market today at the most competitive prices. Since 1990, Interstate Metal has specialized in the manufacturing and distribution of brass, copper, aluminum, and lead-free brass alloy materials.

    Our commitment to quality and customer satisfaction is as solid as it was when our company was first founded over 30 years ago. To learn more about our 360 brass products, feel free to contact us or request a quote today.